1. Pedrosa C. Radiología en traumatología, ortopedia y reumatología. Marbán libros. 2008.
  2. Greenspan A. Radiología de huesos y articulaciones. Marbán libros. 2006.
  3. Michael T. Modic, Thomas J. Masaryk, Jeffrey S. Ross and Jhon R. Carter. Imaging of Degenerative Disk Disease. Radiology 1988; 168:177-186.
  4. Michael T. Modic and Jeffrey S. Ross. Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease. Radiology 2007;245:43-61.
  5.  Jeffrey G. Jarvik and Richard A. Oeyo. Imaging of Lumbar Intervertebral Disk Degeneration and Aging, Excluding Disk Herniations. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 38 Number 6 November 2000.
  6. Remy S. Nizard, Marc Wybier and Jean-Denis Laredo. Radiologic Assessment of Lumbar Intervertebral Instability and Degenerative Spondylolisthesis. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 39 Number 1 January 2001.
  7. Mini Pathria. Imaging of Spine Instability. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 9, Number 1, 2005.
  8. Elizabeth Susan Lustrin, Sabiha Pinar Karakas, A. Orlando Ortiz,  Jay Cinnamon, Mauricio Castillo, Kirubahara Vaheesan,  James H. Brown, Alan S. Diamond, Karen Black and Sudha Singh. Pediatric Cervical Spine: Normal Anatomy, Variants, and Trauma. RadioGraphics 2003; 23:539–560.
  9. Allison Gilmore and George H. Thompson. Radiographic Evaluation of Children and Adolescents with a Spinal Deformity. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology Volume 4, Number 3 2000.
  10. N. Ni. Mhuircheartaigh, J.M. Kerr and J.G. Murray. MR Imaging of Traumatic Spinal Injuries. SeminMusculoskelet Radiol 2006;10:293–307.
  11. Guillermo F. Carrera, Victor M. Haughton, Asbjorn Syvertsen and Alan L. Williams. Computed Tomography of the Lumbar Facet Joints. Radiology 134:145-148, January 1980.
  12. Douglas N. Mintz. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Sports Injuries to the Cervical Spine. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 8, Number 1, 2004.
  13. Eric J. Russell. Cervical Disk Disease. Radiology 1990; 177:313-325.
  14. Richard J. Hughes and Asif Saifuddin. Numbering of Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae on MRI: Role of the Iliolumbar Ligaments. AJR 2006; 187:W59-W65.
  15. Hiroshi Taneichi. Role of MR Imaging in the Evaluation of Low Back Pain: An Orthopedic Surgeon’s View. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 5, Number 2, 2001.
  16. David G. Borenstein, James W. O’mara, Scott D. Boden, William C. Lauerman, Alan Jacobson, Craig Platenberg, Dieter Schellinger and Sam W. Wiesel. The Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine to Predict Low-Back Pain in Asymptomatic Subjects. The journal of bone & joint surgery. Volume 83-A · Number 9  September 2007.
  17. James R. Lehrich. Laboratory Evaluation of Low Back Pain Journal of Contemporary Neurology. Volume 1996, Article 6 December 1996.
  18. Kunihiko Fukuda and Gou Kawakami. Proper Use of MR Imaging for Evaluation of Low Back Pain. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 5, Number 2, 2001.
  19. Nils Schonstrom, D and Jan Willen. Imaging lumbar spinal stenosis. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 39 Number 1 January 2001.
  1. Gebhard Schmid, Andreas Witteler, Roland Willburger, Cornelius Kuhnen, Michael Jergas and Odo Koeste. Lumbar Disk Herniation: Correlation of Histologic Findings with Marrow Signal Intensity Changes in Vertebral Endplates at MR Imaging. Radiology 2004;231:352-358.
  2.  Lain W. McCall.  Llumbar Herniated Disks. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 38 Number 6 November 2000.
  3. Pierre C. Milette. Classification, Diagnostic Imaging and Imaging Characterization of a Lumbar Herniated Disk. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 38 Number 6 November 2000.
  4. Dominik Weishaupt, Marius R. Schmid, Marco Zanetti, Norbert Boos, Ben Romanowski, RT, Ruedi O. Kissling, Jiri Dvorak and Juerg Hodler. Positional MR Imaging of the Lumbar Spine: Does It Demonstrate Nerve Root Compromise Not Visible at Conventional MR Imaging? Radiology. 2000;215:247-253.
  5. Michael T. Modic, Thornas Masaryk, Francis Bournphreı Marlene Goormastic and Gordon Bell. Lumbar Herniated Disk Disease and Canal Stenosis: Prospective Evaluation by Surface Coil MR, CT, and Myelography. AJR 147:757-765, October 1986.
  6. Alessandro Bozzao, Massimo Gallucci, Carlo Masciocchi, Italo Aprile, Antonio Barile, and Roberto Passariello. Lumbar Disk Herniation: MR Imaging Assessment of Natural History in Patients Treated without Surgery. Radiology 1992; 185:135-141.
  7. Claudio Dora, Marius R. Schmid, Achim Elfering, Marco Zanetti, Juerg Hodler and Norbert Boos. Lumbar Disk Herniation: Do MR Imaging Findings Predict Recurrence after Surgical Diskectomy? Radiology 2005;235:562-567.
  8. Christian W. A. Pfirrmann and Donald Resnick. Schmorl Nodes of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine: Radiographic-Pathologic Study of Prevalence, Characterization, and Correlation with Degenerative Changes of 1,650 Spinal Levels in 100 Cadavers. Radiology. 2001;219:368-374.
  9. J. Randy Jinkins, FACR and Johan W. M. Van Goethem. The Postsurgical Lumbosacral Spine: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation Wing Intervertebral Disk Surgery, Surgical Decompression, Intervertebral Bony Fusion and Spinal Instrumentation. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 39 Number 1 January 2001.
  1. Jeffrey S. Ross. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Postoperative Spine. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 4, Number 3, 2000.
  2. Phillip M. Young, Thomas H. Berquist, Laura W. Bancroft, Jeffrey J. Peterson. Complications of Spinal Instrumentation. RadioGraphics 2007; 27:775–789.
  3. Hans Peter Ledermann, Mark E. Schweitzer, William B. Morrison and John A. Carrino. MR Imaging Findings in Spinal Infections: Rules or Myths? Radiology 2003;228:506-514.
  4. Stephen F. Hatem and Jean P. Schils. Imaging of Infections and Inflammatory Conditions of the Spine. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 4, Number 3, 2000.
  1. Bernhard J. Tins and Victor N. Cassar-Pullicino. MR Imaging of Spinal Infection. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 8, Number 3, 2004.
  2. Axel Stabler and Maximilian F. Reiser. Imaging of Spinal Infection. Radiologic Clinics of North America. Volume 39 Number 1 November 2001.
  3. Toshiaki Taoka, Nina A. Mayr, Han J. Lee, William T. C. Yuh, Teresa M. Simonson, Karim Rezai and Kevin S. Berbaum. Factors Influencing Visualization of Vertebral Metastases on MR Imaging Versus Bone Scintigraphy. AJR., Jun 2001; 176: 1525 - 1530.
  4. Takehiko Yamaguchi. Intertrabecular Vertebral Metastases: Metastases Only Detectable on MR Imaging. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 5, Number 2, 2001.
  5. Gerard J. Hogan, Stuart E. Mirvis, Kathirkamanathan Shanmuganathan and Thomas M. Scalea. Exclusion of Unstable Cervical Spine Injury in Obtunded Patients with Blunt Trauma: Is MR Imaging Needed when Multi–Detector Row CT Findings Are Normal? Radiology 2005;237:106-113.
  6. Marcia E Blacksin and Frank Alberta. Cervical Vertebral Trauma: Plain Film Approach. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology. Volume 2, Number 1 1998.
  7. Richard H. Daffner. Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebral Injuries. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 82 Number 1, 1998.
  8. Richard H. Daffner. Controversies in Cervical Spine Imaging in  Trauma Patients. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 9, Number 2, 2005.
  9. Sameet K. Rao, Christopher Wasyliw and Diego B. Nunez, Jr. Spectrum of Imaging Findings in Hyperextension Injuries of the Neck. RadioGraphics 2005; 25:1239–1254.
  10. Leonard Berlin. CT Versus Radiography for Initial Evaluation of Cervical Spine Trauma: What Is the Standard of Care? AJR 2003; 180:911-915.
  11. Stuart E. Mirvis. MR Imaging for Assessing Acute Vertebral Trauma. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 2, Number 1, 1998.
  12. Philip F. Benedetti, Linda M. Fahr, Lawrence R. Kuhns and L. Anne Hayman. MR Imaging Findings in Spinal Ligamentous Injury. AJR 2000; 175:661-665.
  13. Charles Lee, Kwang S. Kim and Lee F. Rogers. Triangular Cervical Vertebral Body Fractures: Diagnostic Significance. AJR 138:1123-1132, June 1982.
  14. Mark P. Bernstein, Stuart E. Mirvis and K. Shanmuganathan. Chance-Type Fractures of the Thoracolumbar Spine: Imaging Analysis in 53 Patients. AJR 2006; 187:859-868.
  15. Leon Lenchik, Lee F. Rogers, Pierre D. Delmas and Harry K. Genant. Diagnosis of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures: Importance of Recognition and Description by Radiologists. AJR 2004; 183:949-958.
  16. Donna M. Plecha.Imaging of Bone Marrow Disease in the Spine. Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology. Volume 4, number 3 2000.
  17. Andrea Baur, Axel Stäbler, Armin Huber and Maximilian Reiser. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Spinal Bone Marrow. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 5, Number 1, 2001.
  18. Elmar Spuentrup, Arno Buecker, Gerhard Adam, Joop J. van Vaals and Rolf W. Guenther. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging for Differentiation of Benign Fracture Edema and Tumor Infiltration of the Vertebral Body. AJR 2001; 176:351-358.
  19. Andrea Baur, Axel Stabler, Roland Bruning, Reiner Bartl, Andreas Krodel, Maximilian Reiser, Michael Deimling. Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging of Bone Marrow: Differentiation of Benign versus Pathologic Compression. Radiology 1998; 207:349-356.
  20. Masayuki Maeda, Hajime Sakuma, Stephan E. Maier and Kan Takeda. Quantitative Assessment of Diffusion Abnormalities in Benign and Malignant Vertebral Compression Fractures by Line Scan Diffusion-Weighted Imaging. AJR 2003; 181:1203-1209.
  21. Henk-Jan Van der Woude and Michael Egmont-Petersen. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Volume 5, Number 1, 2001.
  22. Sinchun Hwang & David M. Panicek. Magnetic resonance imaging of bone marrow in oncology, Part 1. Skeletal Radiol (2007) 36:913–920.
  23. Anil Khosla and Franz J. Wippold. CT Myelography and MR Imaging of Extramedullary Cysts of the Spinal Canal in Adult and Pediatric Patients. AJR 2002; 178:201-207.
  24. Kelly K. Koeller, Scott Rosenblum and Alan L. Morrison. Neoplasms of the Spinal Cord and Filum Terminale: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation. Radiographics. 2000;20:1721-1749.
  25. Felix E. Diehn. Imaging of Spine Infection. Radiol Clin N Am 50 (2012). 777–798.
  26. Jamshid Tehranzadeh, Carol Andrews and Edward Wong. Lumbar spine imaging. Normal Variants, Imaging Pitfalls, and Artifacts. Radiologic clinics of north america. volume 38, numer 6, novembre 2000.



Fecha de creación Marzo 1 de 2011
Fecha de actualización Abril 17, 2016